Wednesday, 7 March 2012

Western Cracovian, Kołbielski, Green Kurpian, Raciborz, Kielce, Wielkopolskie

Western Cracovian costume
Maiden and bachelor from western Krakow area
Handmade by: Jadwiga & Andrzej Kaliszewski, Warszawa
The most popular and well known of all Polish costumes is the Krakowski. Cracovians lived in agricultural and industrial areas around Cracow (Kraków) and were closely connected with the city.
There is close to 80 rural villages and small towns, near and further from Kraków that wear their own version and style of this costume, so there are many variations. Also, this is divided by East and West of Kraków.
A Bronowicki married woman's outfit 
The largest and closest village, Bronowice is now a suburb of Krakow, is called Krakowski-Bronowicki, which is the most represented of the Krakowski costume. Full development of this costume came by the late 18th century and declined in the early 20th, as urban wear became more popular.
Bride and groom
   Pictured here are wedding dolls in the Bronowicki version, west of Kraków. The Krakowski bride wears a all white outfit with a type of wedding hat that was topped with artificial flowers and ribbons. Grooms wore a white sukmana - a type of long white coat, with their outfit and four cornered red hat with many peacock feathers. Married men then wore black hats called celender (żeleźniak). 


   One of the Mazovian area costumes on the right bank of Vistula river, just east of Warsaw. The Kołbielski costume was also made of homespun wool and linen. Woman also wore a bodice made frequently of red damask. White embroidered tulle bonnets with multi-coloured little ribbons or kerchiefs covered their heads. Was worn till the second world war. 
    Hard to find this kind of doll, so I had her specially made, but she has a felt vest instead of a damask looking one.

Green Kurpian

Kurpiowski Puszczy Zielonej (Kurpian costume from the Green Forest) is a well known one, just north east of Warsaw, they lived in a marshy and forest area. They were mainly hunters as soil was poor for farming. Distinct was the high black hats for maidens, called czółko, decorated with ribbons, artificial flowers and sometimes peacock feathers. Married women wore kerchiefs. They also wore bast shoes that were laced up with thin rope to the ankles, boots came in later years. So popular was this costume that it was worn up to WWII, and even today for church and family ceremonies. 
These dolls are from two different doll makers showing the maiden attire. 

Raciborski costume is identical to the overall group of Silesian costumes. The greatest similarity was to the dress of Pszczyna and Rozbarsk. The most characteristic element of Raciborski outfit was the coloured garments, decorated with patterns of a large woollen scarf worn crossed over on the shoulders. 
Raciborski costume developed in the nineteenth century, which had an impact on increasing wealth of the village. Women wore long pleated skirts, and had aprons of brocade fabrics, often decorated with floral patterns. Typical elements are colorful shawls with silk fringes. The men's costume was similar to those of Silesia, and at the end of the nineteenth century, it has been replaced by urban attire.
I found the girl in a Cepelia store in Katowice just last year, the gentleman I ordered from a doll maker in Warsaw last January.

   Named after the city Kielce in Małopolska (Little-Poland) region, the Kielecki costumes came out of use gradually in the early twentieth century. Only the women's dress has survived. They were mostly sewn from homespun fabrics. Skirts, aprons and capes were in stripped colours, predominantly red. Long wool capes were worn on shoulders, and were not only protecting against the cold, but also from rain and even snow. They wore kerchiefs on their heads, but this doll doesn't, she came with her braids done up.

Great Poland
Lubuski (left) and Bamberek Poznanski (right)
I have two dolls here representing costumes from different parts of Wielkopolska (Great-Poland):
Dąbrówka-Wielkopolska (Lubuski) 
Very most western part of Poland, close to German border. Lubusz costumes are represented in the towns of Dąbrówka, Międzyrzecz and several other villages. Large white tulle embroidered bonnets with wide ribbons and shawl for the married women. Young girls wore flowered wreaths on their heads. Men's costume disappeared at the turn of century.
Worn in the villages around the city of Poznan. Also called Bamber, it has both German and Polish influences. Made from costly material and worn mainly for church ceremonies till the first world war. It included a head dress for unmarried woman, a high tiara made of artificial flowers and bows. As in most of Wielkopolska region, they wore shoes. These two I had privately made.

Monday, 5 March 2012

Rzeszowski, Piotrkowski, Chelmski, Zywiec-Gorals,

  These dolls are from the area by Rzeszów city, called Rzeszowski in south-eastern part of Poland. Bachelor and maiden variation of costume. The red and blue embroidery shouldn't be painted on, but some doll manufactures take this short-cut. Married women wore white kerchiefs either tulle with white embroidery or cotton with the red/blue embroidery and long sleeved jackets with beading. I need to find one like that, then I will post in future.

These two dolls are wearing a variation from a village called Wołbórz
  Two dolls by different manufactures in Piotrkowski costume of central Poland, close to the city of Łódz. They also had multi stripped wool skirts and aprons. Black velvet vests are beaded in white/silver or multi colour. Worn up to the period between the two wars, men's costume disappeared earlier. Most guy dolls are hard to find, so I have to make special order.

Unknown maker, sticker on left says "City of Chelm"
   This costume named after the city Chełm (Helm), very eastern part of Poland by Belarus border. It is very close to Belorussian costumes in look and has black/red cross stitched embroidery on blouse, but the light-weight wool horizontal stripped skirt is unique for the Chełmski costume. See photo below of actual costume.
Found this one last year on e-bay.
Zespół w regionalnych strojach  Ziemi Chełmskiej.
Photo: Polish Folk Ensemble "Ziemi Chelmski" in Chelm

Zywiec Gorals
    Another sub-group of Górale, west of Podhale, inhabiting the area near the city of Żywiec, but in villages in the mountains and valleys of that area. The guy here has a bag pipe called kozub, it has the shape of a goats head. As typical for all highlanders, Górale wear leather moccasins called Kierpce.

   Another góralski doll, this showing one of the trades they did, which was wood work or wood turning. Górale were mainly sheep herders, as it was not possible to farm in the rocky and poor soil mountain area where they dwelled. Timber was abundant and they made many things like wooden boxes to sell in towns and cities. This was a cottage industry.

Łancucki, Świętokrzyzki, Sannicki, Opoczno, Pszczynski, Opolski

The Lancut or Łańcucki costume comes from the very south-east part of Poland, not far from Rzeszów city. The Lancut costume was worn by well-off people and preserved many elements of the former Rzeszowian costume, at the same time imitating the expensive clothes of the nobility and burghers. These dolls I found on e-bay 2 years ago, which was a great find!

Holy Cross Mountains costume
  The Świętokrzyski costume is part of Małopolska (Little-Poland) region. Comes from the range of the Holy Cross Mountains, close to the city Kielce, there is some similarity to Kielecki costume, yet they are different. Mostly sewn from homespun fabrics, such as stripped woollen skirts, aprons and linen. This costume was worn till the early 20th century. This doll was special made, one of a kind.

   Part of central Poland Mazowsze (Mazovia) region, this area just north of Łowicz and was once considered part of Łowicz as a variation of that costume. This doll represents the area called Sannicki-Gąbinski, from the biggest town there, Gąbin. The bodice was made from damask or brocade, usually green, attached to wool stripped skirt. This doll was special made, can't find anywhere.

    Also from Mazowsze region, close to Łowicz area, yet the Opoczynski costume was very distinct from its neighbours. Difference was in the stripped wool patterns and colours as well as cross stitch embroidery on their linen blouses and shirts. Married women wore a large tulle hat when they first married, replaced later with a kerchief.

   The Pszczyński costume is part of the Śląsk (Silesia) region. I have two here, the married woman wore a white headscarf with white work embroidery, the unmarried girl has a flowered wreath. Like most costumes of this region, blouses sleeves were short, just to the elbows and dress skirts were long to the ankles. They wore shoes, not boots.

   Opolski is another costume from Śląsk area. Name comes from the city Opole and surrounding area. Men's costume is identical to Rozbarski-Bytomski one, which I posted earlier. These dolls represent the unmarried girl on right and married woman's on left.

Sunday, 4 March 2012

Zywiec Township, Lubelski, Podlaski Nadbużanski, White Kurpian, Warminski

Zywiec Township
Couple on Left:  Handmade in Poland by Jadwiga & Andrzej Kaliszewski, Warszawa, 1988
Lady on Right: "Tradycia" Rękodzieła Ludowego i Artystycznego, 1986
   Żywiecki-Mieszczański (Zywiec Township) this beautiful costume is just from the town inhabitants of Żywiec was actually quite rich and expensive, made from imported fabric such as damask, silk and satin. Women wore whitework embroidered tulle aprons, collars and shawls, all handmade. Some of the costume elements were modelled on old nobleman's costume from 16th century.

Krzczonów (Lublin)
These dolls represent the costume is actually from the village of Krzczonów, but widely called Lubelski after the city of Lublin, eastern Poland. Very popular costume especially in many dance ensembles.

Podlasian (Nadbuzan)
   Eastern Part of Poland, this is a fairly large area. There are up to five different sub-groups. In this picture I have the area called Nadbużanski. I will post two others I have later. The Podlasian (Podlaski) costume was mostly made from homespun fabrics, and worn till the second world war. They mainly wore bast shoes (made from linden or birch bark, woven and laced up with string) leather shoes came in later years, if one can afford it. Main occupation was agriculture but was a poor soil area.
  The lady on left I partly made finding the woven wool for skirt and apron, lady on right I found on e-bay two years ago and the man is special order request from Warsaw this year.

White Kurpian
There are two types of Kurpian attires, the green forest and the white forest, as above (Kurpiowski Puszcze Biały), north of Warsaw, in the Mazovia region of Poland. Mostly made of homespun wool and embroidered linen blouses. These dolls come from a manufacturer in Pułtusk, that specialize in making their regional costumes.

detailed embroidered cap

   This is the north-central region of Poland, called Warmia (Warminski).
This costume ceased to be regularly worn toward the end of 19th century. The main feature of their costume was the embroidered bonnets of the married women, both in gold or coloured.

  Unmarried girls had no head dress but embroidered aprons, where the married women did not. Because they were close to the Baltic sea, they wore necklaces of amber.
These dolls were a special order.
Stanislaw Wyspianski Handicraft Co-operative, Krakow

Łowicz, Podhale, Spisz, Beskid, Rozbarsko-Bytomski, Dolnośląsk, Biskupian

  From central Poland, west of Warsaw. These beautiful and multi-coloured costumes were named after the largest town in the area -  Łowicz (Wo-vitch) and are one of the most popular costumes of Poland which were worn by the inhabitants till the early years after WWII. Many Polish folk dance groups wear these costumes, and you can still see them in Łowicz and other towns near by during the feast of Corpus Christi (Boźe Ciało) procession.
Various dolls by different doll makers. The middle couple: female has a velvet jacket that married women wore.
  First appeared in 1830's when peasants started dyeing wool threads in dark reds and black, later orange became dominant along with other colours in between at the turn of the century. During the interwar years it was blue's, green's and purple with all their hues as well as rainbow colours.

  When velvet became available for purchase, they replaced the woollen stripped vests for those as well as add on the edge of the skirts and aprons and embroidered on these, mainly in roses. Embroidery on blouses and shirts also changed from simple to large elaborate roses. 

A Lowicz bride, style from the 1950's

Podhale-Gorale (part 1)
   Górale or Gorals are from the very south of Poland, the mountain range called Tatry. There are actually several different Górale (highlanders) subgroups. The largest and most popular of these are the Podhale.                                                                                                                                            
   They still wear their costumes to this day, mostly for holidays, church processions, weddings as well as dance performances. One can still see the men driving horse buggies pulling tourists around Zakopane or a guide leading hikers up a mountain path. They have their own dilect and have beautiful music, using mostly fiddles, double bass and dudy (type of bag pipes).
Woman in Jurgow variation, man in Kawcin variation of Spisz
   The Spisz (Spish) are a subgroup of Górale, just east of the Podhale region in the western Carpathian Mountains, lying in the territories of Slovakia and Poland. Their music and dances have some Hungarian influences.

Beskid Highlanders

   These Silesian highlanders had clothes that were mostly made from homespun fabrics. They stopped wearing them entirely after WWII.

Maiden and bachelor attire
Another maiden. Male here has a miners uniform (ceremonial)
Married woman's costume.
  This traditional dress was worn in the eastern, upland part of Górno-Śląsk (Upper Silesia) region, near Katowice and Bytom. Called Rozbarski or Rozbarsko-Bytomski. Since this was an industrialized area, the costumes were sewn from mostly factory-made fabrics.

Handmade by Andrzej Kaliszewski, Warszawa 2012
   Dolnośląsk (Lower-Silesia) had several costume variations of this region which was the very south-west part of Poland, once belonging to Germany. The traditional folk wear went into decline of use late 19th century for women, and the men's much earlier. They were made from ready-made fabrics and women invested in expensive bonnets. Growth of local industry brought increasing popularity of urban clothes. These dolls I recently acquired by special order, the man actually has urban style clothes from the 19th century.

Biskupian costume
Maiden and bachelor version of costume.
  The Biskupianski, also called Dzierżaki comes from southern part of Wielkopolska (Great-Poland). Most commonly used in period between the two world wars, most often for church and festivals. Beautiful was the embroidery on woman's apron.